People living in different parts of China have a variety of eating habits. People in the north mainly eat food made from flour, while people in the south mostly eat rice. In coastal areas, seafood and freshwater products account for a large proportion of people's diet, while in other areas, meat and dairy products are more common. Residents in provinces such as Sichuan and Hunan generally prefer spicy food, while people in Jiangsu and Zhejiang have a sweet tooth. However, similar foods may have different tastes due to different cooking methods.
It is a fact that more and more Chinese can hardly do without their mobile phones nowadays. Many of them, including senior citizens, use mobile apps to keep in touch and expand their circle of friends. They also use mobile phones to shop online and search for information because they are portable. What's more, communication through mobile apps costs less than traditional phones. However, this new trend results in the overdependence on mobile phones in social contact. As a matter of fact, some young people have become so addicted to mobile phones that they have neglected the face-to-face communication with their family and friends.
The using of chopsticks is the product of the Chinese culture. China is an agricultural country and the Chinese rely on vegetables for food. Chopsticks are very convenient tools for eating. Chinese culture advocates collectivism and stresses harmony. In terms of eating customs, using chopsticks is the expression of this kind of culture. The Chinese like to have communal meals where everybody eats food out of the same plate. Chopsticks are used in order to discourage people from eating much more than others. Therefore, the using of chopsticks has not only preserved collectivism, but also limited the swell of individualism.
武汉是湖北省的省会，历史悠久，风景优美，有著名的黄鹤楼(Yellow Crane Tower)、东湖风景区等名胜。此外，武汉也是我国水、陆、空交通的枢纽(hub)，是一个重要的工商业城市。武汉市与80多个国家和地区有经济往来。武汉东湖高新技术开发区集中了20多所高等院校和120多个科研单位，在设施和人才方面均具有一定的优势。来自全国各地的专家们汇聚于此，进行合作研究。
As the capital city of Hubei Province, Wuhan has a long history and beautiful scenery such as the Yellow Crane Tower and the East Lake Scenic Spot. In addition, Wuhan is also a hub of water, land and air transportation and a city of industrial and commercial importance. The city keeps economic ties with over 80 countries and regions. Over 20 colleges and universities as well as more than 120 research institutions are concentrated in the East Lake New and High Technology Development Region of the city, boasting an advantage of facilities and talent. Specialists from all over the country gather here, carrying out joint research.
The new energy vehicle-sharing project has been launched in Beijing, Shanghai and other cities. This new type of service is expected to add new vitality into China's sharing economy in the next few years. To enjoy the car-sharing service, you need to first download the App, then register to become a member and upload photos of your ID card and your driver's license. After passing the review and paying the deposit, you can use the car-sharing service by scanning the QR code. The deposit is mainly used for paying fees arising from car damage, violations of regulations and administrative punishment. The car rental is charged according to the actual mileage and the usage time.
The Internet has become an important way for people to get information. Ever since it was introduced into China, China's radio and television stations have taken advantage of their resources and brands to launch Internet news dissemination in order to meet people's great needs for news. A number of websites providing comprehensive news service have been established, which has not only extended the scope of the authoritative news dissemination and expanded new space for the development of traditional media, but also has gradually become the important channel for people to obtain news.
据可靠数据，中国餐饮业一年浪费的食物相当于两亿多人一年的口粮。面对严重的食物浪费，北京一家民间公益组织利用微博发起了一项反对浪费的行动——“光盘”行动(“clean your plate” campaign)。“光盘”行动提倡节约，反对浪费，呼吁人们把宴会后没吃完的剩菜带回家，在社会上得到了广泛响应。人们纷纷行动起来，就连餐馆也推出了小份菜(smaller dish)、半份菜(half-portioned dish)和拼盘菜(assorted dish)来反对食物浪费。
Reliable data indicates that food wasted in catering business of China is equivalent to the amount consumed by more than 200 million people during one year. Faced with the serious problem of food waste, a non-profit folk organization in Beijing launched an anti-waste activity dubbed “clean your plate” campaign through microblog. This campaign calls for people to take leftovers home after a banquet so as to advocate thrift and fight against waste, and has received an extensive response from the public. Many people take actions immediately. Even restaurants have begun to fight against wasting food by offering smaller dishes, half-portioned dishes and assorted dishes.
As an art of writing Chinese characters, Chinese calligraphy boasts a considerably long history. It is one of the highest forms of Chinese art, serving the purposes of conveying thoughts and showcasing the abstract beauty of lines of Chinese characters. It is also widely acknowledged that Chinese calligraphy plays a part in preserving the health of those who practice it, which is supported by the long lives of many calligraphers in Chinese history. When one is practicing calligraphy, he or she highly concentrates and is spellbound by the charm of the work, turning a blind eye and a deaf ear to unpleasant things. A sense of calm and relaxation and a comfortable psychological state take them over, which is highly beneficial to both the body and mind.
Advocating the low-carbon lifestyle and promoting citizens’ consciousness of energy conservation and emission reduction are important measures against global warming. Leading a low-carbon life is not difficult. As long as we establish the consciousness of green environmental protection and keep starting from ourselves to pay attention to everything around us, we can make the low-carbon lifestyle available to all. To achieve that, we should make the idea of green environmental protection popular. We should integrate green environmental protection activities into every aspect of work and life; we should carry out the targeted training about the low-carbon lifestyle; we should actively advocate volunteer activities and comprehensively publicize the knowledge of energy conservation and emission reduction, as well as environmental protection and others so as to increase people’s consciousness of environmental protection to live a low-carbon life in the whole society.
说到中国文化,不能不提到长城。从公元前7世纪到公元16世纪,在大约2 200年的时间里,先后有19个朝代修建过长城,所修的长城长达10万千米以上。主要的长城修建工程是在秦代、汉代和明代完成的。现今存有遗迹的主要是明长城,从东边入海口的山海关(Shanhai Pass)开始,一直到沙漠深处的嘉峪关(Jiayu Pass),全长约6 700千米。长城是世界历史上最伟大的工程之一,其建造时间之长、参与人数之多、工程难度之大,在世界上无出其右。
When it comes to Chinese culture, the Great Wall is the one that will be definitely referred to. Through about 2 200 years from the 7th century BC to the 16th century AD, the Great Wall was built in 19 dynasties and reached a total length of more than 100 000 kilometers. The major construction was carried out in the Qin, Han and Ming Dynasties. The Great Wall we visit nowadays is mainly the Great Wall of the Ming Dynasty, stretching about 6 700 kilometers from Shanhai Pass at the eastern river mouth to Jiayu Pass in the depths of desert. The Great Wall is one of the greatest projects in the history of the world for its unparalleled span of construction, amount of labor and difficulty.
This is the aim of traditional Chinese painters: not only to describe the outer appearance of a subject but also to capture its inner essence—its energy, life force and spirit. They achieve this with the most economical means: brushes and ink. In order to reach this goal, they tend to reject the use of color. Like photographers who prefer to work in black and white, traditional Chinese artists regard color as the distraction. They also reject the use of light and shadow, which have changeable qualities. Instead, they rely on the line—the indelible mark of the brush and the ink. The reason why traditional Chinese painters can master this skill likely lies in their previous practice of calligraphy.
古筝(guzheng)是一种古老的中国民族乐器。它是一种弹拨乐器(plucked instrument),其发音清脆悦耳。古筝的历史可以追溯到公元前5世纪至公元前3世纪的战国(the Warring States)时期,经秦汉时代由西北地区流传至全国。古筝音色(timbre)高洁典雅、富有神韵(romantic charm)。从古至今,古筝音乐都深受各阶层人士的欢迎与喜爱,是一种雅俗共赏的艺术。古筝已经成为中国传统文化的一部分,也是世界各民族共同的文化艺术财富。
As an ancient Chinese national musical instrument, the guzheng is a kind of plucked instrument with a clear and pleasant sound. The history of the guzheng can date back to the period of the Warring States from the 5th century BC to the 3rd century BC, and then the guzheng spread to all over the country from the Northwest region during the Qin and Han Dynasties. The guzheng has a noble and elegant timbre full of romantic charm. The music produced by the guzheng has been welcomed and loved by people from all walks of life from ancient times to the present and it is an art form appealing to both refined and popular tastes. The guzheng has become a part of traditional Chinese culture as well as the treasure of culture and art shared by different nations in the world.
经过多年的摸索,绿色交通的理念已经成为我国交通运输行业发展的共识。根据规划,今年我国交通运输行业有关指标将实现大幅提升,基本建成低碳交通运输体系。要实现这一目标,加快智能交通系统(intelligent transportation system)与信息化建设、不断推动多项信息化技术在交通领域的应用成为重要的工作着力点。信息化技术应用在交通领域的广泛展开,不仅展现出良好的发展前景,也会促使相关领域的企业加大合作力度。
With many years of groping, the idea of green transportation has already become common sense in China’s development of the transportation industry. According to the plan, the relevant indicators of China’s transportation industry will rise sharply this year and a low-carbon transportation system will be basically established. To achieve this goal, we should accelerate the development of the intelligent transportation system and information technology and keep promoting the applications of many information technologies in the transportation field, which is the key work focus. The extensive applications of information technology in the transportation field not only present a good prospect, but also prompt the enterprises in the relevant fields to strengthen their cooperation.
近几年,电子商务的迅猛发展加快了电子货币(electronic money)的普遍应用。电子货币是通过电脑或手机等电子化方式来支付的货币。电子货币最典型的例子是比特币(bitcoin),它可以用现金购买,还能像其他任何货币一样进行交易。与现金支付相比,电子货币更加方便,增加了社会效益(social benefit),但对银行经营方式产生了冲击。安全性一直是电子货币使用过程中最受关注的问题,因此要建立完善的电子货币支付系统,保证支付的安全性。
E-commerce has undergone tremendous growth in recent years, accelerating the widespread application of electronic money. Electronic money is the currency which is used to pay by electronic means like a computer or mobile phone. The most typical example of electronic money is the bitcoin, which can be bought with real money and used to trade like any other currency. Compared with the cash payment, it is more convenient and raises the social benefit, but it has an impact on the way the bank operates. Security has always been the biggest concern in the process of using electronic money, so it is required to establish a perfect electronic money payment system to ensure the security of payment.
Now the income gap is getting wider and wider. In some privately owned firms, joint-ventures, or foreign-fund companies, an executive's yearly income is ten times or even a hundred times as much as an ordinary worker's.
Faced with this situation, people will undoubtedly have different opinions. Some believe that it benefits the social and economic development since driving force is often derived from the gap. In other words, the gap inspires people and gives a push to advancement. Others speak of its side effect: income gap is often the root of social unrest and also contrary to our country's principle.
From my point of view, while it is true that the income gap may stimulate the social development to some extent, it causes trouble as well. An income gap that is too wide for most people to bear can neither contribute to the stability of a country nor promote its economic development. Therefore, while we are advocating the rapid development of our country, we should tolerate the narrow income gap but narrow the wide one.
Write a composition entitled Popularity of Green Food.You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chiness.
Popularity of Green Food
Due to its high-quality and original tastes, green food appeals to more consumers. From supermmarkets to chain stores, green food is found everywhere.
Why is green food so popular even though its price is usually higher than other food? On the one hand, recently a series of issues on food safety makes customers disturbed and anxious. In order to have the reliable food, more housewives opt to select green food for their family. Green food has been labeled as a kind of healthy, delicious and fashionable food. This is perhaps the most important reason for the popularity of green food. On the other haod, with the advance in living standard, people will pay more attention to the quality of food and their raised income is enough to cover the expenditure of food with a comparatively high price.
With the development of the society, green food is certainly to hold a larger portion in the market. In the near future, people will be accustomed to enjoy the fresh vegetable, fruits and cereals without pesticide residues, artificial feed and contarnination.(183 words)
Wechat Conquers the World
Since the policy of Reform and Open in the last century, Chinese economy develops so rapidly. At the same time, the technology catches up with the world. The popular social communicational tool Wechat was created in China, but now it conquers the world and people is crazy about it.
The reason why people like to use Wechat is that the functions are all-sided. Before Wechat, the most popular social communicational tool like facebook though is creative, it has to download another software to better communication. While for Wechat, everything is simple, you don’t need to download another software. What’s more, you can pay and have the webcam with your friends. The comment that your friends give to you is more private, only the common friends can share. As it is so convenient, people say that they can do everything with a smart phone at hand.
Technology changes our life and people’s need promotes the improvement of technology. We use our wisdom and create the new things. We should be proud of us and show to the world that Chinese people are creative.
Equality of Education Opportunity
In recent years the problems which are caused by the inequality of education opportunity have attracted the public's attention. For instance, the backward teaching facilities and dilapidated school buildings in rural areas are in sharp contrast to those advanced facilities and well-equipped classrooms in urban areas, students from poor families cannot go to universities because of the high tuition.
There are several factors which contribute lo these problems. First, the distribution of resources is unbalanced between rural and urban schools. Second, educational loans for poor students are far from enough. Third, the inequality in some schools' admission policies also turns many students away. The education inequality can result in many bad impacts. On one hand, it can affect people’s future employment. On the other hand，it is the root of many social problems.
To change this situation, I think, we should take the following measures. Firstly, the government's spending on education should be increased and the allocation of public resources gives priority to rural and weak urban schools. Secondly, the implementation of the government financial aid system for students should be accelerated. Thirdly, the government should speed up education reforms to ensure everyone has equal access to schools.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic Do We Need “Never give up”? You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below in Chinese:
Do We Need “Never give up”?
It is widely accepted that “Never give up”, a strong and positive life attitude, is the key for individual success on the grounds that permanent persistence may boost our confidence, strengthen our will, and provide us a second chance for success when we are in hardship. However, others argue that sensible abandonment is more precious than blind persistence because the wise one should choose the most suitable area for himself/herself.
In my opinion, we need to learn to give up timely. The most immediate reason is that we should adjust our aim carefully in order to go ahead continuously. Sometimes, to give up those unrealistic targets is essential for success. Besides, the attitude “Never give up” exhausts us both mentally and physically. Only through learning to give up can we lead a pleasant and relaxing life. Finally, the temporary comprise means a new start, a beginning bringing new hopes, expectations and opportunities for us.
Passive as giving up sounds alike, it represents a more mature and realistic mentality. If those opposing this attitude can take into consideration of its benefits, then this may seem acceptable in our lives.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Aid Education in China. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese:
Aid Education in China
Aid Education in China
There has been a hot topic recently about college students’ being encouraged to help children in the poor and remote areas.
Generally aid-education is helpful in two aspects. First of all, it can broaden volunteers’ horizons in poverty-stricken regions. For instance, it is a golden opportunity for volunteers to experience a completely different life. In addition, college students have to adapt themselves to the harsh living conditions, meanwhile they can make friends with the children.
In my view, the future of China’s education depends on the joint efforts of the society, the government and all the citizens. To sum up, we college students should take the initiative in response to the appeal for supplying help to children in poor regions
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic How to Deal with Sub-health? You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese:
2. 亚健康的具体表现及在我国的蔓延程度(据调查，北京 75%、上海72%、广州70%的上班族都处于亚健康状态)
How to Deal with Sub-health
With the modernization of the world, people’s standard of living has improved a lot. Then there appears a state of sub-health among people which poses a new threat to them.
There are some typical symptoms for people who are in a state of sub-health. First of all, those who suffer from it often have a headache or backache. Secondly, they feel like having a rest frequently. What upsets us most is that, the situation is spreading countrywide. As a result, more and more workers in big cities are harassed by it, with a percentage of 75 in Beijing, 72 in Shanghai and 70 in Guangzhou respectively.
Then how can we solve this problem effectively? Experts suggest that the best way to keep ourselves healthy is to do exercises. It is also very important that people should form a good living habit, for example, getting up early and going to sleep early. Only doing so can we keep us healthy.
How to Enhance Our Sense of Happiness?
Along with the improvement of living standards, people are no longer content with being fed and clothed adequately. They are more concerned about how to enhance their sense of happiness.
To a large extent, happiness depends on individuals’ understanding about it. For some people, happiness relies on material basis, without which they can't live comfortably and decently. For others, they believe that happiness has nothing to do with money. Thus to enhance happiness is not equal to improving one’s material living standards. Instead, people are supposed to confront their life with right attitude, to be active and grateful in order to have a happy life.
For my part, money does buy happiness, but only up to the point where it enables one to live comfortably. To boost one’s happiness not only needs the material but also the spiritual enrichment. It encompasses living a meaningful life, utilizing your gifts and your time, living with reflection and objective.
On the Senior Empty Nests
For most senior students in universities, the last academic year has nothing to do with academics. To the frustration of professors, few courses are attended by students. And dorms are almost vacant with few lodgers. This kind of phenomenon, which has been called “Senior Empty Nests”, is common among universities of China.
Where have those absent senior students gone? Some lucky dogs have gone to their new jobs while the majority are still striving to get a job or engaging in their internship outside of the campus. The severe employment pressure has pushed senior students into employment market earlier. The anxiety of getting a job before graduation disturbs the restless mind of every student, which leads to skipping school of most students.
In my view, with senior students leaving campus earlier, their time of education has been reduced, which puts them in a disadvantaged position in the employment market. Students should start job hunting after finishing the courses of the last academic year. At the same time, the universities should provide career education for senior students.
The resources of the earth are limited. We should cherish and cherish these resources. So we're going to do garbage sorting, and reuse the available resources again.
At home, remind everybody garbage classification, water bottles, cans, such as waste paper packed together to sell, resources recycling, and made money, the waste batteries, cartridges, etc in the recycling bins. In school, you can reuse and reuse garbage, put in two different trash cans, one is recyclable and one is unrecyclable. Learn from your classmates and discuss ways to classify rubbish. In the suburbs, we will use two bags to classify garbage, pick up the garbage that we see and classify it, so that it is the best young pioneers. This allows you to easily categorize.
Everyone is sorting garbage, and the earth is beautiful. We will see the thick wood, the clear water, the blue sky and the blue sea, everyone has a sweet smile.