Section 1 Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence__1__firm’s work, too.
Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.__2__, firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research and development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking__3__for making investments for the future.
The researchers wanted to know if the__4__and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would__5__the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness__6__by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.
__7__enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were__8__.But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities__9__why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various__10__that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was__11__to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally__12__even after accounting for these things.
The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors__13__to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less__14__managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.” The relationship was__15__stronger in places where happiness was spread more__16__.Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.
__17__ this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least__18__at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help__19__how executives think about the future. “It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward-thinking and creative and__20__R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.
1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when
2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion
[选项分析]? 根据语境，“新发现表明：快乐可能会影响工作__的稳定。”[A] 为什么 [B] 哪里 [C] 怎样，多么 [D] 当…时候。根据语义分析，C选项填入原文，译为“快乐可能会影响工作是有多么稳定”，C为正确选项。
2. [标准答案][B]In particular
[选项分析][A] 反过来 [B] 尤其是 [C] 相反 [D] 总的来说 根据前文语境，第二段第一句译为“根据近期的研究，拥有更多快乐的人的公司会投资更多”。而第二句“_______那些在快乐氛围中的公司会做更多的研发以及发展。“第二句是在第一句的基础上进一步强调说明，因此B选项更符合语境要求。
3. [标准答案] [D]necessary
[选项分析][A]充足的 [B] 著名的 [C] 完美的 [D] 必要的 首先，根据本句题干 “That’s?because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for the future.”译为“因为快乐与对未来投资有______长远考虑相联系。”要求填写形容词, 我们要考虑其搭配与其修饰成分。空格处搭配介词for, 并且修饰“长远考虑”。因此D选项最符合语境要求。
[选项分析][A]个人主义 [B] 现代主义 [C] 乐观主义 [D] 现实主义 本题考查同后缀的名词辨析。根据原文主旨，探讨“happy people”与公司的关系。那么，衡量四个选项，只有C选项符合主旨要求。
[选项分析] [A]发出回声 [B] 想念，错过 [C] 破坏 [D] 改变 根据原文语境，“would 5 the way companies invested.”本题考查动宾搭配，宾语为“公司投资的方式”只有D选项搭配最为合理。
[选项分析] [A]想象 [B] 衡量，测量 [C] 发明 [D] 假定，设想 “So they compared U.S. cities’average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.”译为“他们把盖洛普咨询公司所_____的美国城市平均幸福指数与该地区的上市公司投资活跃度进行对比。” 根据原文语境，盖洛普咨询公司所做的应该是一个“既定事实”所以排除ACD。因此，B选项为最佳选项。
[选项分析] [A]确信的 [B] 奇怪的 [C] 不幸运的 [D] 经常的 本题为固定搭配“sure enough” 译为“足以肯定的是，”
[选项分析] [A]广告的 [B] 划分的 [C] 课税过重的 [D]位于总部的 根据原文“ firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8 . ”译为“足以肯定的是，公司投资与研发力度与公司______的幸福指数相关。”in which 引导表示地点的定语从句，先行词为area.对比四个选项，ABC不足以说明此地点的真实含义。因此，D选项，搭配前文area,构成“总部所在地”最为合理。
[选项分析] [A]解释 [B] 夸大 [C] 概述[D]重点强调 根据原文“…or ould something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D?” A选项 “explain”常和后文 “why” 搭配使用。
[选项分析] [A]阶段 [B] 因素 [C] 等级[D]方法 根据原文语境“To find out, the researchers controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales…”本题中，破折号后面 “大小，产业，销售”这些都是 “让公司有更多投资的”因素。因此，B选项最符合原文语境。
3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary
4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism
5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change
6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed
7. [A] Sure [B] Odd [C] Unfortunate [D] Often
8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered
9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize
10.[A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods
11.[A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable
12.[A] resumed [B] held [C]emerged [D] broke
13.[A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D]compare
14.[A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D]experienced
15.[A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never
16.[A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally
17.[A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since
18.[A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes
19.[A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share
20.[A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send out
11.[标准答案] [A] desirable
[选项分析] 该空填的是形容词，用来修饰前面的名词place,并且在意义上也是对后面like growth in wages or population的解释，可以看出来应该是填褒义词，并且能修饰place.所以只有[A]desirable合适的 符合文章。[B]social 社交的 [C]reputable 受尊敬的 [D]reliable 可依靠的。